The air-breathing fishes are distinguished by the possession of an accessory respiratory (air-breathing) organ, which enables them to exist for hours at times out of the water, or indefinitely in oxygen-poor waters and even in moist mud. Not only they are able to thrive in water containing low oxygen but they are also extremely hardy with respect to all other environmental parameters and are suited to shallow and derelict waters. They are highly priced for their high protein, high iron, and low-fat contents. In India, the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu support the most significant natural fishery of air-breathing fishes. They are generally carnivorous in nature and in culture operation they adapt excellently to supplementary feeding with dried marine trash fish, oil cake, and rice bran. Magur and Singhi are known to be feeding on gastropods, microcrustaceans, tubificid worms, insects, and other larvae. Koi is generally microplankton feedeJ” in younger stages and takes to insectivorous habit in later stages. Koi responds favorably to feed-oriented culture with oil cake and rice bran.
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