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Agricultural diversification is an important instrument for economic growth. Introduction and diversification of rabi crops in the state may increase cropping intensity in this backward, poverty-ridden and deprived state. Rice-based farming systems are crucial for strengthening livelihoods and alleviating hunger and poverty in rural area. They also provide a range of poverty-escape mechanisms for poor smallholder families and for rural landless-laborer families. The monsoon crop is rice and the main subsequent crops (where conditions and circumstances allow) are rice or wheat. Vegetables, pulses, millets and other high value agricultural (HVA) crops are safe options for diversification of cereal based cropping system to ensure food, nutrition and livelihood security. The vegetable farming is one of the best options for small farmers in the urban and peri-urban areas. Presently, in Jharkhand the share of total condiments and spices is virtually nil. Greater employment opportunities result in greater incomes for poor households. Labor demands also arise in the post-harvest sector, since sorting, grading, cleaning, packaging and transports are all labor- intensive 57 Vision 2030 activities. The relative profitability of horticultural crops compared to cereals has been shown to be a determining factor for crop diversification into horticultural production in India (Joshi et al. 2003). The demand for fruit and vegetables and meat is expected to rise rapidly with economic
growth and this will change many farming systems.

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