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Control of manganese deficiency in berseem crop

Title: Managing Manganese Deficiency in Berseem Crop: Essential Tips for Farmers


Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) is an important forage crop found in many agricultural systems worldwide, particularly in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Like many other plants, berseem requires a balanced nutrient supply to grow optimally and produce high-quality forage. Among these essential nutrients, manganese (Mn) plays a crucial role in several biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, enzyme activation, and nitrogen metabolism. Inadequate manganese levels can lead to significant yield losses and hinder the overall health and productivity of berseem crops. To ensure the success of your berseem crop, it is vital to understand and address manganese deficiency.

Identifying manganese deficiency symptoms:

Manganese deficiency in berseem crops can manifest in various ways, making it important for farmers to recognize and differentiate these symptoms from other nutrient deficiencies or environmental stressors. Common signs of manganese deficiency include interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) of the leaves, starting from the base and extending towards the leaf tips. In severe cases, necrotic spots may appear on older leaves, followed by stunted growth, reduced leaf size, and delayed flowering. Regular monitoring and early identification of these symptoms can help devise appropriate strategies for manganese supplementation.

Soil testing and nutrient management:

Before sowing berseem, soil testing is crucial to evaluate the soil’s nutrient content, including manganese levels. Conducting soil analysis helps identify manganese deficiencies and determine the optimal fertilization approach. The ideal pH range for berseem crops is between 6.0 and 7.0, as manganese availability decreases at extreme pH levels. If the pH is too low or high, soil amendments may be required to adjust the pH level and enhance manganese availability for the plants.

Introducing organic matter:

The addition of organic matter can significantly improve soil quality and nutrient availability for berseem crops. Incorporating well-decomposed farmyard manure or compost into the soil can supply an adequate amount of manganese, along with other essential nutrients. Organic matter improves the soil’s ability to retain moisture, resulting in better crop growth and reduced risk of nutrient deficiencies.

Foliar application of manganese:

To provide an immediate source of manganese to berseem plants, foliar applications can be an effective strategy. Foliar sprays with manganese sulfate or chelated manganese can quickly correct deficiencies and help in overcoming limitations in soil uptake. This method is particularly beneficial when the crop exhibits severe symptoms, as it ensures direct nutrient delivery to the leaves and facilitates efficient absorption.

Preventive measures and crop rotation:

To minimize the risk of manganese deficiency in berseem crops, crop rotation plays a vital role. By rotating with other crops that have different nutrient demands, farmers can prevent excessive depletion of manganese from the soil. Additionally, preventive measures such as ensuring proper drainage and avoiding waterlogging can help maintain optimal manganese availability and reduce the likelihood of deficiency.


Manganese deficiency can pose a significant threat to berseem crop productivity, affecting both quality and yield. By implementing effective strategies such as soil testing, nutrient management, organic matter incorporation, foliar applications, and proactive crop rotation, farmers can successfully tackle manganese deficiency in their berseem crops. Always remember that a holistic approach, along with timely monitoring and intervention, is key to maintaining optimal nutrient levels and ensuring healthy and productive berseem cultivation.

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