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Black gram sowing season and varieties

Title: Black Gram Sowing Season and Varieties: A Comprehensive Guide

Black gram, also known as “urad dal” or “matpe bean,” is a highly nutritious and commonly consumed pulse in many parts of the world. Sowing black gram during the right season and choosing suitable varieties are vital factors that significantly influence the crop’s productivity and quality. In this article, we will explore the ideal sowing season and various popular varieties of black gram.

Sowing Season for Black Gram:
The choice of the sowing season for black gram primarily depends on the climatic conditions and availability of water. Generally, black gram requires a warm, tropical climate with a temperature range of 25-35 degrees Celsius for optimal growth. It is a relatively short-duration crop, usually taking 3-4 months from sowing to harvesting.

The ideal sowing time for black gram varies between regions but typically falls within the following periods:

1. Kharif Season (Monsoon): In most regions of India, black gram is sown during the Kharif season, which begins around June and extends till August. The monsoon rains provide sufficient moisture for the crop’s germination and early growth.

2. Rabi Season (Winter): In certain southern regions of India, black gram is also cultivated during the Rabi season. Sowing in late October or early November allows the crop to take advantage of the cooler weather and abundant sunlight during winter.

Popular Varieties of Black Gram:
Black gram has several popular varieties that are known for their yield, adaptability, and resistance to pests and diseases. Let’s take a look at a few commonly cultivated black gram varieties:

1. T-9: This variety exhibits excellent resistance to diseases, especially powdery mildew. It is also known for its high yield potential and adaptability to diverse agro-climatic conditions.

2. Co1: Co1 is a leading variety with a high yield potential and early maturity. It has good resistance to diseases and pests and is suitable for cultivation under irrigated and rainfed conditions.

3. PDU 1: PDU 1 is a popular variety known for its adaptability to varied soil types, including heavy soils. It has a long-duration and offers good yield potential, making it suitable for both fresh consumption and processing.

4. ADT 3: ADT 3 is a widely grown black gram variety due to its high tolerance to drought conditions. It is a short-duration variety that matures early and needs relatively less water.

5. TAU 1: This variety is known for its bold-sized grains and high yield potential. TAU 1 performs well in rainfed conditions and is resistant to diseases like yellow mosaic virus.

Choosing the right sowing season and selecting suitable black gram varieties are crucial steps for successful cultivation. By considering the climatic conditions, rainfall patterns, and pest/disease resistance, farmers can optimize their black gram production. Whether you are cultivating black gram for personal consumption or commercial purposes, employing appropriate sowing practices and selecting the right variety can significantly contribute to a successful harvest of this versatile pulse crop.

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